In short, the definition of a satellite orbit is a path or trajectory in space. Satellites in space will move along this path.
Each celestial body has its own orbit. The goal, of course, is to avoid collisions between objects.
We all need satellites to overcome some of the barriers in the communication system. What exactly is a satellite?
Understand satellite orbits and their types
While using the internet and exchanging messages, have you ever thought about what connects one network to another?
Most of the communication systems on earth are available due to the presence of satellites. The earth is orbited by several satellites.
The word satellite comes from a Latin word meaning servant. In theory, on the other hand, a satellite is a celestial body that moves on an existing orbit around other objects.
Basically there are two types of satellites, namely natural and artificial satellites. These types are differentiated according to their origin.
Natural satellites come from nature, such as the moon. While man-made man-made satellites have certain functions for life, such as the palapa satellite.
Slot Orbit Satellit
The definition of a satellite orbit is a satellite’s trajectory. The orbit takes the form of an elliptical or circular orbit and moves around a Planet.
There is also the term orbital slot which is used to indicate a specific location to be selected by the satellite. The choice of orbit is very important and has become a fundamental thing.
The orbital slot determines the delay time (loss and time) of the delay in the transmission path, the time interval in which the satellite can be seen and the earth coverage area.
Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO)
GEO is a satellite that orbits more than 36,000 kilometers above the earth’s surface. The definition of this satellite orbit has motion at an average speed exactly the same as Erdrotation, that’s 3 km / sec.
Characteristics of satellites orbiting in GEO:
Satellites in GEO orbit always stay in their position. This is because the speed of its orbit is the same as that of the earth. So if the satellite is over a country, it will keep going and not move.
Another feature is that GEO has a large enough area to cover the entire earth, only a few satellites are needed. Examples of satellites in GEO orbit are Telekom, Palapa, Garuda, PSN and IndoStar.
Middle Earth Orbit (MEO)
MEO is a satellite orbit that begins at an altitude of 2,000 to 35,000 kilometers above the earth’s surface. The period of this satellite is getting higher and seems to keep moving due to its closer distance from Earth.
Features of satellites orbiting MEO:
Satellites orbiting MEO have lower latency than GEO. MEO also has a smaller coverage area.
Each satellite on MEO also has a different trajectory and does not have to be at the equator.
Examples of satellites in MEO orbit are those used for acquisition, including the U.S. satellite GPS system at an altitude of 20,000 km. Another example is the Russian GLONASS satellite at an altitude of 19,000 km.
Low Earth Orbit (LEO)
As the name suggests, the definition of the LEO satellite orbit is the lowest of the others. LEO is only an altitude of 500 to 2,000 kilometers from the earth’s surface.
Characteristics of satellites orbiting in LEO:
Its satellites will orbit the earth in 1.5 hours. That’s about 16 times a day at a speed of 27,000 km / h. At this speed and distance, the satellite will be seen moving when it is away from the earth.
LEO has the lowest latency and coverage than other orbits. The LEO orbit is typically filled by satellites that operate on mobile devices in the telecommunications sector, such as the Iridium and Global Star satellites.
Each satellite orbit contains a different satellite. The difference is adapted to the purpose and function of the satellites present. Indonesia has launched several satellites that are useful for mapping and telecommunication systems.
The use of satellites for mobile or mobile telecommunication systems is highly recommended because of their wide coverage. This enables the telecommunications network to be distributed to remote areas.
Remember that each planet has its own satellite. The definition of satellite orbit is different for each planet. (R10 / HR-Online / Editor-Ndu)