The ideology of National Socialism assigned women a narrowly limited role as wives and mothers. On closer inspection, this has little to do with the reality of the regime that required women in many functions. And they looked for and used their possibilities.
In the years after the Nazi takeover of power in 1933, women were again subject to restrictions, from which the revolution of 1918/19 had freed them: They lost their right to vote, so they could no longer be elected to parliaments and thus lost their political interests to represent. Existing women’s associations had to be dissolved or incorporated into Nazi women’s organizations such as the Nazi women’s association. Women were not allowed to occupy leading positions within the now powerful NSDAP.
Since the beginning of the economic crisis of the late 1920s, married women had been forced out of skilled occupations by the “double-income campaign”, so the age limit for the lifetime civil service of women has now been raised to 35 years; Men, on the other hand, could become civil servants at the age of 27. And at the universities, the new gentlemen introduced a numerus clausus for women willing to study, at least for the academic year 1933/34. The ideology of the NSDAP envisaged the role of woman and mother as part of the desired “national community” for women, rewarded by the mother’s cross, which was awarded like a medal to mothers with many children.
But did that also mean that these patriarchal role models were implemented? There are great doubts about this …
Author: Prof. Dr. Marita Krauss
You can read the full article in THEN 01/2022