Soil layer structure and its special properties – Nach Welt

The structure of the soil layer generally consists of 4 parts. You can distinguish between soil layers and their properties.

Definition and types of soil layer structure

The bottom is the uppermost part of the earth’s crust. Soil-forming structures arise from rocks that are weathered and mixed with the remains of other organic materials.

You can conclude that land is an amalgamation of natural bodies that leads to a process of destruction and development.

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The stages of destruction include the weathering and decay of organic materials. After the damage, a development process takes place with the formation of new minerals from the parent rock.

What is earth

The soil layer is a soil classification structure based on its vertical position. That is, the bottom layer is made up of the parent, the bottom, and the top.

These parts are broken down into several parts called the soil horizons. The structure of the soil layer generally consists of 4 main parts.

Horizont O

The O horizon layer contains a lot of organic material. This first layer is very rich in humus and soil fertilizer

The main characteristic of the O horizon is its dark color and small thickness, which is about 13-25 cm.

The dark color that appears is caused by the remains of living things such as rotting branches and leaves.

Because of this content, this layer is very optimal for plant life.

Horizon A

This soil layer is often referred to as the topsoil or clay. Horizon A has an average thickness between 50 cm and 1 meter.

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This A-horizon layer actually arises because the weathering mixture in the lower layer is carried away by the water and settles. The main feature of this soil is that the top layer is more dense.

Horizon B

This next layer of soil is also known as the sub-soil. Horizon B is the leaching zone, in which the soil particles are deposited that are washed out and released from horizon A.

You can mark the structure of the underground layer with a lighter color. This color occurs because the A horizon does not contain organic materials and therefore is not fertile.

Horizon C

This layer is known as the regolith zone, which is the bedrock layer. A process of destruction and weathering takes place in this section.

The rock in this layer comes from the soil that has hardened for a very long time. The main characteristic of this soil layer is its gray to slightly whitish color.

The parent rock has a great influence on the formation of the soil, as it is related to the nature of the resulting soil. The type of bedrock is sedimentary, metamorphic to igneous.

Horizont D

Basically, this layer is identical to the D-horizon, the only difference is that the parenting tools in the D-horizon are still intact and have not undergone any weathering process.

Country group

After you know the structure of the soil layer, you will learn about soil groups. The soil is divided into two groups, namely:


This soil group or soil type is created by the weathering process of the host rock. Most mineral floors are less than 2.0 mm in diameter.

You can find this type of soil in water for less than 30 days year round. Called mineral soil because less than 20% of its content is in the form of organic carbon.


This type of soil is usually useful for the decomposition of plant and animal material. Organic soil for feeding.

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Then revitalize the soil with the help of the microorganisms it contains. Of course, this soil is rich in organic matter, mainly due to the influence of the climate.

Benefits of Soil Horizon Layer

Each underground structure is divided into sections called horizons. These layers are arranged in a unit that you can call the soil profile.

Grouping soil profiles is not without purpose. The soil horizon is used to determine the depth of a soil layer.

Soil depth is useful for farmers before they start growing short root crops like soybeans and rice.

In addition, grouping by horizon is also helpful in determining the degree of soil fertility.

You can more easily tell whether the soil layer is fertile or not by looking at the organic content and color the soil is producing.

The structure of the soil layer can be very fertile if it contains a lot of organic elements, for example on the B horizon. (R10 / HR-Online / Editor-Ndu)

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