Quitting smoking, the key to preventing COPD and lung cancer – archyde

TEMPO.CO, Jakarta – Two of the many diseases that smoking cessation can prevent, namely chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Lung cancer. World Health Organization (WHO) data from 2002 showed that COPD ranks third after cardiovascular disease and cancer, which are the world’s leading cause of death.

An estimated 4.8 million people in Indonesia have COPD and this number could rise as the number of smokers increases, as 90 percent of people with COPD are or ex-smokers. University of Indonesia Hospital (RSUI) lung specialist Aditya Wirawan said regarding general symptoms and the grade on the COPD shortness scale, which ranges from Grade 0 to Grade 4.

Grade 0 is no shortness of breath except during strenuous activity, Grade 1 is shortness of breath when walking quickly or uphill, Grade 2 is slower than their peers due to shortness of breath. Grade 3 occurs after 100 meters or several minutes of walking, and Grade 4 occurs shortness of breath while bathing or dressing. According to Aditya, shortness of breath in COPD patients is caused by changes in the anatomical structure of the lungs.

“The alveoli expand so that air can easily get in, but the air is difficult to get out, so the production of mucus increases. This phenomenon is known as the phenomenon of Bottleneck, “he said.

To diagnose COPD, patients should see a doctor. The doctor will ask you a few questions, do an exam, and do a spirometry test. If COPD is diagnosed in the early stages, it can be treated more easily and not progress to a more severe stage.

Aditya said COPD is a lung disease that can be prevented and treated, but is dangerous if left untreated. He urges people to regularly check their lung health and avoid exposure to pollutants, including through stop smoking.

In addition to COPD, avoidance and smoking cessation can also prevent lung cancer. A lung specialist at University Hospital of Indonesia (RSUI), Gatut Priyonugroho, said that many people feel that smokers can stay healthy and not get lung cancer, or that there are lung cancer patients who don’t seek treatment but are still alive today. In fact, people should be looking for studies with a larger number of samples.

As life expectancy increases, the disease trend is now shifting towards non-communicable diseases such as stroke, heart disease and cancer, including lung cancer. This is accompanied by an increasing number and proportion of smokers.

Based on UNICEF data on the profile of teenagers in Indonesia in 2021, 59.7 percent will start smoking under the age of 19 every day. Lung cancer cases in Indonesia are the third most common cancer (8.6 percent), after breast cancer (16.7 percent) and cervical cancer (9.3 percent).

Half of lung cancer patients die within a year. Smoking is one of the factors that contribute to the occurrence of cancer. Cancer is a malignant lump that can spread to other places and damage it. Not all lumps are cancerous, so it is best to see a doctor first so they can be properly diagnosed.

Cancer is caused by gene mutations in which cells can abnormally enlarge and multiply. These abnormal cells grow disorganized and malignant. Cancer cells can spread to other parts, so they should be detected early to prevent further spread.

Gene mutations themselves can arise from continuous exposure to pollutants, one of which is found in cigarettes. Some harmful substances that can cause cancer found in cigarettes include benzoapiren and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

It has been known since the 1970s that these substances cause cancer in all animals examined in rats, mice and monkeys, whether inhaled, swallowed or injected. Cigarette smoke even contains high PAHs.

Cigarettes also contain arsenic, a substance used in killing that comes from volcanoes, pesticides, batteries, and others. There are 0.8-2.4 µg, or the equivalent of 20 cigarettes, while the lethal value is around 1 mg or more.

Cigarettes also contain polonium-210, a radioactive substance. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that smoking is the leading preventable cause of cancer and death. Active smokers are 4.6 times more likely to develop lung cancer than non-smokers.

To prevent lung cancer, the main step is to avoid the cause, which is to stop Rauch. Cigarettes, which can cause cancer, are not due to smoke building up in the body, but rather to substances that slowly damage DNA and cause gene mutations. A no less important expense is to carry out routine lung health checks at least once a year.

Also read: Prevent advanced stages of lung cancer with early detection



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